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fme_481106 - III REPUBLIC Médaille “Jusqu’au bout” du général Gallieni

III REPUBLIC Médaille “Jusqu’au bout” du général Gallieni XF
20.00 €(Approx. 23.20$ | 16.80£)
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Type : Médaille “Jusqu’au bout” du général Gallieni
Date: 1916
Mint name / Town : 75 - Paris
Metal : copper nickel
Diameter : 31 mm
Engraver MAILLARD Auguste / PARIS ART
Weight : 7,58 g.
Edge : lisse
Coments on the condition:
Patine hétérogène

Obverse


Obverse legend : ANÉPIGRAPHE.
Obverse description : Buste à gauche du général Gallieni; signé : AUGte MAILLARD / 1916 et PA sur une feuille à droite.

Reverse


Reverse legend : PARIS / 1914-1916 / - / “JUSQU’AU BOUT” / GALLIENI.
Reverse description : Légende en 3 lignes puis signature.

Commentary


Joseph Simon Gallieni, né le 24 avril 1849 à Saint-Béat dans la Haute-Garonne et mort le 27 mai 1916 à Versailles, est un militaire et administrateur colonial français. Il exerça une grande partie de son activité dans les opérations de colonisation menées par la France, laissant une empreinte profonde sur l’histoire de la colonisation française, et termina sa carrière pendant la Première Guerre mondiale. Il fut fait maréchal à titre posthume en 1921.
Lorsque le 26 août 1914, le général Gallieni est nommé gouverneur militaire de Paris pour assurer la défense de la capitale, il rassure les Parisiens par ces mots : « J’ai reçu le mandat de défendre Paris contre l’envahisseur ; ce mandat je le remplirai jusqu’au bout. »
Lors de ses funérailles nationales, Georges Clemenceau écrira : « Le général Gallieni est l’homme dont la prompte décision nous a donné la bataille de la Marne. Il est le véritable sauveur de Paris. Les funérailles nationales ne sont qu’un commencement de justice. Avec ses conséquences, le reste suivra. L’heure viendra des jugements et la mémoire de Gallieni peut attendre avec tranquillité l’avenir. »

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Historical background


THIRD REPUBLIC

(4/09/1870-10/07/1940)

The news of the capitulation of Sedan causes the revolution of September 4, 1870 in Paris. Proclaimed at the Hotel de Ville, the Republic has a provisional government called the Government of National Defence. Left threatened by insurrection of the Commune and right by the monarchists, the new regime had a difficult start. Chief executive in the first phase (February 1871), Thiers is responsible for reorganizing the country before deciding on the form of government. He became president in August 1871 and, despite its release action of the territory, to leave his post in March 1873 against the royalist opposition. It is then replaced by MacMahon favorable to the restoration of the monarchy but it is not restored after the flag issue. The law of the seven is then introduced in November 1873 and in 1875 were voted the fundamental laws that serve Constitution of the Third Republic. Parliamentary system, it is characterized by the preponderance of the legislature over the executive. Anticlerical, the Third Republic makes free, secular and compulsory education but continued the colonial policy for its economic, strategic and moral ambitions. The separation of church and state was passed in 1905. The idea of ​​revenge on Germany and an important nationalism are at the heart of the Boulanger crisis, the Panama scandal and the Dreyfus affair years 1886-1899 while foreign policy is very active especially in Morocco and the arms race develops. The First World War is expensive to France which rises until 1920 or 1928 to the currency with the franc "Poincaré". The 1929 crisis is felt until 1932 but lasted until 1939, during which the ministerial instability is very important. Vacillating in 1934, the Third Republic is a new cement unit with anti-fascism that allows the rise to power of the Popular Front in 1936. But paralyzed face Germany, France will then get stuck in a "phoney war" and know one of the greatest defeats in its history in June 1940. National Assembly met in Vichy July 10, 1940, Chambers, however, elected in 1936, voted full powers to Pétain in a kind of collective suicide by 569 votes for, 80 votes against and 18 abstentions.

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