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E-auction 328-244729 - SECOND EMPIRE Médaille d’enseignement primaire

SECOND EMPIRE Médaille d’enseignement primaire AU
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NO BUYER'S FEE.
Estimate : 100 €
Price : 21 €
Maximum bid : 26 €
End of the sale : 29 July 2019 18:18:30
bidders : 8 bidders
Type : Médaille d’enseignement primaire
Date: 1854
Mint name / Town : 33 - Virelade
Metal : copper
Diameter : 52 mm
Engraver FAROCHON Jean-Baptiste Eugène (1812-1871)
Weight : 65 g.
Edge : inscrite : A M.ELLE LAMARQUE (SOEUR ST DELPHIN) INSTITUTRICE LIBRE A VIRELADE (GIRONDE) 1853-1854 + main CUIVRE
Puncheon : main indicatrice (1845-1860) et CUIVRE
Coments on the condition:
Intéressante médaille, avec des traces de manipulation. Patine brune

Obverse


Obverse legend : EMPIRE FRANÇAIS // ENSEIGNEMENT PRIMAIRE.
Obverse description : Allégorie féminine couronnant deux enseignants ayant chacun 3 et 4 enfants devant eux. Signé : E. FAROCHON SCULP. 1855..

Reverse


Reverse legend : ANÉPIGRAPHE.
Reverse description : Aigle impérial, les ailes partiellement repliées, à gauche, sur une branche de laurier et une palme.

Commentary


Médaille signée “E. FAROCHON Sculp 1855”, avec un poinçon main (utilisée entre 1845 et 1860). La médaille fut décernée à Mademoiselle Lamarque, (aussi appelée Soeur St Delphin?) pour son exercice d’institutrice libre à Virelade dans la Gironde dans les années 1853-1854. Il faut croire que la médaille fut décernée en 1855 (cf. signature de E. Farochon).

Jean-Baptiste Farochon est l'élève de David d'Angers à l’École des beaux-arts de Paris en 1829. Lauréat du prix de Rome de gravure en médaille et pierre fine en 1835, il devient pensionnaire de la villa Médicis de 1836 à 1839. Il expose au Salon de 1833 à 1866. Il est professeur de gravure en médaille et pierre fine à l’École des beaux-arts de Paris en 1863. Son buste, par Gabriel Faraill, l'un de ses élèves, est conservé dans la salle Victor Schœlcher de cette école.

Historical background


SECOND EMPIRE

(2/12/1852-4/09/1870)

Proclaimed emperor under the name of Napoleon III, Louis Napoleon made his solemn entry into Paris December 2, 1852. He married Marie Eugenie de Montijo, a Spanish aristocrat, in January 1853. His reign can be divided into three periods: the authoritarian Empire until 1860, the Liberal Empire from 1860 to 1870 and the Parliamentary Empire in 1870. During the authoritarian Empire, Napoleon III exerts its unchallenged power, control the press while newspapers practice self-censorship to avoid deletion. Prefects exercise unlimited power in the departments, mayors, civil servants are appointed by the government. As under the First Empire, Education and the University are monitored. Now the main principles of the revolution, the people's sovereignty is continued through consultation by plebiscite. On the economic front, the growth is important, industrialization develops and credit agencies and department stores. Military prestige is enhanced by the Crimean War that allows France to play an international role. The attack Orsini (January 1858) does not preclude the France to intervene in Italy to overcome the principle of nationalities and allows the annexation of Nice and Savoy by the Treaty of Turin (March 1860). In 1860, the Empire is moving towards more freedoms: free trade treaty of commerce with England, the appearance of a weak opposition in the Legislature, granting the right to strike (1864), liberalization of the press (1868). On the international level, France acquires New Caledonia, Cochin and encourages digging of the Suez Canal by Ferdinand de Lesseps. Mexico, support for Maximilian and Austria, however, is a failure. The elections of 1869 are very bad for the regime and the opposition gets 45% of votes. The system then evolves towards a parliamentary Empire calling Émile Ollivier, chief Orléanist and Liberal party in power. After Sadowa in 1866 when Prussia crushed Austria, the case of the throne of Spain and the Ems telegram lead to war was declared July 19, 1870. Accumulating setbacks, the French army was surrounded in Metz and Napoleon III, sick, capitulated at Sedan on September 2. As soon as the news was known, the decay of the Empire is announced by Gambetta and the Republic was proclaimed on September 4. Napoleon III was then taken captive in Hesse and share in Kent, where he died in 1873.

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