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E-auction 482-393201 - fme_661227 - CONSULATE Médaille, Fontaine Bonaparte

CONSULATE Médaille, Fontaine Bonaparte XF
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NO BUYER'S FEE.
Estimate : 180 €
Price : 48 €
Maximum bid : 49 €
End of the sale : 11 July 2022 18:14:00
bidders : 10 bidders
Type : Médaille, Fontaine Bonaparte
Date: 1802
Mint name / Town : 13 - Marseille
Metal : copper
Diameter : 43,5 mm
Engraver POIZE Pierre (1760-1846)
Weight : 50,32 g.
Edge : lisse
Puncheon : sans poinçon
Coments on the condition:
Jolie patine marron hétérogène avec quelques taches noires. La médaille présente des marques d’usure sur les reliefs. Présence de quelques coups et rayures, en particulier sur la tranche

Obverse


Obverse legend : AU IER CONSUL BONAPARTE, VAINQ.T PACIFIC.T MARSEILLE RECONNAISSANTE // CAMBACÉRÈS ET LEBRUN / 2E. ET 3E. CONSULS / CHAPTAL MIN.T DE L’INT.R.
Obverse description : Buste à gauche de Bonaparte, premier consul.

Reverse


Reverse legend : AN DIX DE LA RÉPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE // ÉRIGÉE PAR LES SOINS DE / CHARLES DELACROIX / PRÉF.T DU DÉP.T.
Reverse description : Colonne de la fontaine Bonaparte ; légende en 3 lignes à l’exergue.

Commentary


Charles Delacroix, premier préfet des Bouches-du-Rhône, initie un programme de fontaines décoratives et commémoratives au cours de son mandat. Il en prévoit une en l’honneur du Premier consul pour embellir le cours Bonaparte (aujourd’hui cours Pierre Puget). Pour ce faire, le Conseil municipal commande, le 18 février 1801, un buste pour couronner une colonne antique offerte par la Ville d’Aix-en-Provence et trois bas-reliefs pour le piédestal à Barthélemy Chardigny (1757-1813).
La pose de la première pierre intervient le 13 novembre 1801 ; le monument est achevé en juillet 1802. Malheureusement, son caractère politique nuit rapidement à sa pérennité. En 1814, une fleur de lis dorée remplace le buste et, en 1816, la dédicace « À Bonaparte / Vainqueur et Pacificateur / Marseille reconnaissante » est effacée. Enfin, en 1818, la fontaine est supprimée ; seule la colonne antique est conservée et placée au sommet du jardin de la Colline (aujourd’hui colline Puget)..

Historical background


CONSULATE

(9-10/11/1799-18/05/1804)

Backed by supporters of a strong power, Napoleon Bonaparte, General victorious campaigns in Italy and Egypt, overthrew the Directory on 18 and 19 Brumaire Year VIII (9 and 10 November 1799). The Revolution is over, the fate of France is now in the hands of a strong executive. A new constitution, the Constitution of the year VIII, enters into force on December. It defines the powers and strengthens Bonaparte in his country's strongman role: First Consul, at the head of the executive, he appoints to key public functions has a certain legislative initiative power and retains its role military. The Senate, the Legislative Body and Tribunat up three assemblies that have the other part of the legislative function. November 11, 1799, Bonaparte took an important decision: he appoints Gaudin Minister of Finance. It will retain his position until April 1, 1814, and find during the Hundred Days. Restore the finances of the state is the number one priority of the First Consul. Thus, the Banque de France was created February 18, 1800. With the help of the Sinking Fund, the budget is restored France in 1802. And in 1803, as part of the great monetary reform, Franc, guaranteeing stability, reborn as the Franc Germinal. The second priority is Bonaparte internal pacification of the country undermined by divisions created by the Revolution. To reconcile the French, several measures were adopted: religious freedom, end the sale of national property, amnesty for immigrants. Only western France remains insubordinate. Insurgency and brigandage drive this part of the country and undermine hopes of the First Consul, despite the signing of a truce with the Chouans leaders in November 1799. However, with the support of the clergy, the Vendée is pacified current 1800. The religious frame then fits definitively as the main element of the stabilization of the company. Negotiations with Pope Pius VII resulted in the signing of the Concordat of 1801. Sixty bishops appointed by Bonaparte, and invested by the Pope, then settled on the whole territory. Catholic priests, also called, are now bureaucratized. Many refractory align themselves, others continue to have trouble, mainly in Brittany and Normandy, where the Royalists, aided by England, awaiting the arrival of Louis XVIII. Outside, another challenge awaits Bonaparte restore peace. The Austrians were defeated at Marengo 14 June 1800, then Hohenlinden December 3, 1800. Peace of Luneville was signed February 9, 1801. March 25, 1802, the Peace of Amiens was signed with the British. In 1802, the Consulate takes a new direction, more authoritarian. The Jacobins are excluded from political life (the most virulent stopped by Fouche, Prefect of Police), the press is controlled, and the Royalists pursued. It is in this context that adopted the Constitution of the Year X: it considerably reduces the powers of the assemblies, and called Napoleon Bonaparte Consul for life. The bases of the first Empire in place.

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