Obverse legend : + KAROLVS [F]RACORV REX.
Obverse description : K sous une couronne.
Obverse translation : (Charles, roi des Francs).
Reverse legend : DVPL-EX. TVR-ONVS - FRAC.
Reverse description : Croix.
Reverse translation : (Double tournois de France).
CHARLES VII THE VICTORIOUS
Born in Paris in 1403, Charles was the son of Charles VI and Isabeau of Bavaria. Upon his accession to the throne, Charles VII was king for the southern part of France (Anjou, Touraine, Berry, Walking, Bourbonnais, Auvergne, Forez, Languedoc). Normandy, northern Maine, Chartres, Ile-de-France, Champagne and Brie, Calais and Guyenne, Brittany and Burgundy State (duchy of Burgundy, counties of Flanders and Artois, Rethel, Nevers, Macon and Charolais ) recognized Henry VI as King of France and England. The Duke of Bedford, located in Paris, had left the government of England to Beaufort and Gloucester. "King of Bourges" had with him from Bourbon, Orleans and Anjou-Provence. The early war years were undecided. In 1428, the British decided to occupy Orleans and spend the Loire. It was then that seemed to Jeanne d'Arc, lorraine young girl, who hear voices ordered him to liberate France from the English yoke, went to Charles VII at Chinon. They gave him men and weapons. May 6, 1429, it launched the assault against the English at Orleans and stuck unblocked city. On June 18, the French defeated the English at Patay, Troyes was reached on July 10, 17, Charles was crowned in Reims. The towns of Champagne soon returned in obedience to the legitimate sovereign. The winter campaign of 1429-1430 was less fortunate: the royal army failed to Paris. As the Duke of Burgundy, he now swung between the two parties. In May 1430, Joan was captured by the Burgundians at Compiègne. They fought against the English ransom. The May 30, 1431, after a trial of witchcraft, the Maid was burned in Rouen. However, the French conquest continued. In 1434, the Normans rebelled against the occupying English. November 12 1437, Charles VII entered Paris. The "Burgundy" Parliament of Paris and the Parliament "Armagnac" Poitiers merged. A truce was concluded in 1444 and broken in 1449. The reconquest of northern France was made in one year (1449-1450). The English were finally defeated at Damigni April 15, 1450. The conquest of Guyenne, faithful to his sovereign overseas, was more difficult. Bordeaux and Bayonne were taken in 1451, Bordeaux retaken by the English Talbot in 1452. Finally, 17 July 1453, at Castillon, Talbot was defeated and killed. Bordeaux was finally resumed in November 1453. Trial rehabilitation of Joan of Arc took place in 1456. Now, the Wars of the Roses paralyzed Albion. The Council of Constance (1414-1418) ended the Great Schism in on the papal throne Martin V (1417), who called the Council of Basel (1431-1448). It is in this context that Charles VII promulgated the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438) which deprived the pope collation of ecclesiastical benefices and recognized the superiority of the Council over the Pope. Large noble dynasties remained masters of half the kingdom (Britain, Foix, Armagnac, Albret, Burgundy). Their coalitions, such Praguerie 1440, failed, despite the disagreement between Charles VII and his son, the dauphin Louis. In the autumn of the Middle Ages, the royal monarchy reborn stronger than ever. The Englishman shot, he still had to overcome the great feudal principalities.