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E-auction 363-276006 - GALLIA - BITURIGES CUBI (Area of Bourges) Bronze VANDIINOS

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Estimate : 100 €
Price : 39 €
Maximum bid : 39 €
End of the sale : 30 March 2020 14:18:00
bidders : 8 bidders
Type : Bronze VANDIINOS
Date: c. 60-50 AC.
Metal : bronze
Diameter : 16 mm
Orientation dies : 6 h.
Weight : 3,68 g.
Rarity : R1
Coments on the condition:
Usure régulière. Joli revers. Patine foncée
Catalogue references :


Obverse legend : ANÉPIGRAPHE.
Obverse description : Buste féminin à gauche, les cheveux longs ; le cou orné d'un torque, grènetis.


Reverse legend : VANDIINOS.
Reverse description : Aigle de face, les ailes déployées, accosté de trois annelets centrés et d’un pentagramme.


Dans le Muret-Chabouillet, l’attribution aux Bellovaques était déjà remise en question par la trouvaille faite à Levroux d’un grand nombre de monnaies VANDIINOS et CALIAGIID. L'attribution aux Bituriges était proposée, avec l'argument du type de l'aigle au-dessus du cheval, commun aux statères Bituriges et aux bronzes de cette même série (MONNAIES XV, n° 404). Brigitte Fischer fait justement remarquer que ces deux monnaies épigraphes forment une série inséparable. Le droit est inspiré du monnayage massaliote, mais le type est fortement celtisé avec l'apparition d'un torque à la base du cou. Ces bronzes sont antérieurs à 52 avant J.-C. car plusieurs exemplaires ont été retrouvés dans les fossés d'Alésia. L’aigle est très répandu sur les monnaies gauloises, particulièrement sur les monnaies attribuées aux Bituriges Cubes et aux Carnutes, dont il constitue souvent le type principal.

Historical background

Bituriges CUBES (Area of ​​Bourges)

(Second - first century BC)

Bituriges Cubes were one of the most powerful nations of the Celtic. Their territory extended over a portion of Bourbonnais, Touraine and Berry, the current departments of Cher, Indre and part of the Allier. Their capital was the oppidum Avaricum (Bourges). Loire separated Aedui and Carnutes. They also had neighbors Pictones the Lemovices and Arverni. According to the account of Livy, the king of Bituriges Ambigat reigned throughout the unified Gaul in the sixth century before J. C-. and had sent his two nephews, and Bellovesus Sigovesus, one in Italy and one in the East, found the Gallic Empire a century later, extended over Britain, Central Europe (except Switzerland), northern Italy and the greater part of the Danube. Before the Gallic Wars, Bituriges were customers Éduens and a contingent of Boii was installed on their territory. Their main wealth came from livestock and iron mines that had brought wealth and prosperity. In 52 J. C-. , They supported Vercingetorix. They were defeated at Genabum (Orléans) by Caesar. Vercingetorix pushed to practice the technique of scorched earth. And they destroyed more than twenty oppida but refused the same to their capital, Avaricum (Bourges). Caesar besieged the oppidum, defended by thirty thousand and ten thousand allies Bituriges. The city was taken and burned, only eight hundred soldiers were able to escape, while the garrison and population were massacred. Caesar found abundant reserves which enabled him to spend the winter and prepare for the campaign next spring. However, Bituriges have provided a contingent of twelve thousand men to the relief army of the Gallic coalition during the siege of Alesia. Early 51 before J. C-. Caesar led a new campaign in Bituriges who submitted very quickly. A few weeks later, they intervened to Caesar to fight against Carnutes. Caesar (BG. I, 18, VII, 5, 8, 9, 11-13, 15, 21, 29, 75, 90, VIII, 2, 3, 4, 11). Strabo (G. IV, 2). Livy (HR. V, 34, 35). Pliny (HN. , IV. 109). Ptolemy (G. II, 7). Kruta: 68-70, 145, 186-187, 212-213, 240, 334, 344, 360.

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