Obverse legend : + LVDOVICVS: DEI: GRACIA: FRANCORVM: REX (TRÈFLE), (PONCTUATION PAR DEUX ANNELETS SUPERPOSÉS).
Obverse description : Écu de France couronné, soutenu par deux porcs-épics.
Obverse translation : (Louis, par la grâce de Dieu, roi des Francs).
Reverse legend : + XPS: VINCIT: XPS: REGNAT: XPS: IMPERAT (TRÈFLE), (PONCTUATION PAR DEUX ANNELETS SUPERPOSÉS).
Reverse description : Croix achée, cantonnée aux 1 et 4 d’une L, aux 2 et 3 d'un porc-épic.
Reverse translation : (Le Christ vainc, le Christ règne, le Christ commande).
LOUIS XII THE FATHER OF PEOPLE
Born in Blois in 1462, Louis XII was the son of Charles d'Orléans and Marie of Cleves. As Duke of Orleans, he had led the opposition to Beaujeu. Upon his accession to the throne, Louis XII was thirty-six years. He took senior adviser to Georges d'Amboise, Archbishop of Rouen, who, until his death in 1510, remained at the head of affairs. The king's marriage with Jeanne de France was canceled for non-use and Louis remarried Anne of Brittany to keep the duchy to the monarchy (January 1499). The queen had more influence in this second marriage in the first and knew preserve the autonomy of Brittany. Immediately king, Louis XII had taken the title of Duke of Milan, as heir of Valentine Visconti. He renewed the Etaples treaty with England, received the homage of Philip the Fair for Artois and Charolais (1499) and concludes with the Swiss cantons treaty to raise troops in the territory of the Confederation. The king allied with Venice against Moro. In 1499, the Duchy of Milan was invaded by a French army under the command of Milan Trivulce. First refuge with Maximilian, Ludovic took Milan in 1500. In Novara in April, the Swiss betrayed the Moor, who was captured and remained a prisoner until his death in 1508. In Milan, a half-French Senate, half Italian was introduced. France helped the Caesar Borgia to carve a duchy in Romagna, it was allied with Poland, Hungary and Bohemia against the Habsburgs and sent a fleet to the East to help the Knights of Rhodes. In 1501, the French departed from Milan to regain the kingdom of Naples. Frederick was dethroned, but when 1502 began hostilities against the Spaniards. Despite the prowess of the French knights, Naples was lost from 1504 (surrender of Gaeta). Isabella of Castile had died in 1504, Philip the Handsome, husband of his daughter Jeanne, took the title of King of Castile. The kingdom of France would find herself caught between Spain and the remains of the Burgundian state. However, the king continued his Italian dream. The French army set in Milan in April 1509. She defeated the Venetians Agnadel the Adda in May. Julius II then turned against France, formed a Holy League to drive Peninsula and brought the Swiss in Italy. The Battle of the French of Gaston de Foix, Duke of Nemours, against the coalition took place before April 1512 in Ravenna. The French were victorious but Gaston remained on the battlefield. Maximilian joined the Holy League the following year. The Swiss began Maximilian Sforza to the throne of Milan. Finally, Novara (June 1513), they crushed the French. Italy was lost again. North Maximilian of Habsburg and Henry VIII were victors Guinegatte (August 1513). The Swiss reached Dijon. Anne of Brittany died, François d'Angoulême, heir to the throne, married Claude de France, daughter of Louis XII. Reconciled with Henry VIII, the king remarried Mary of England. This second marriage was fruitful development and Louis XII died three months later, leaving the throne to his cousin Angoulême. Political failure, the Italian expeditions of Charles VIII and Louis XII of France, however, put in contact with the Italian Renaissance. For a century, the news came from the Peninsula would stimulate the French Renaissance.