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fjt_700360 - CORPORATIONS COLLEGE DE PHARMACIE 1778

CORPORATIONS COLLEGE DE PHARMACIE AU
80.00 €(Approx. 85.60$ | 68.80£)
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Type : COLLEGE DE PHARMACIE
Date: 1778
Metal : silver
Diameter : 32 mm
Orientation dies : 6 h.
Weight : 9,42 g.
Edge : cannelée
Catalogue references :

Obverse


Obverse legend : ET VIGIL ET PRUDENS.
Obverse description : Un serpent et un coq affrontés, symboles du savoir et de la vigilance.
Obverse translation : Aussi vigilant que prudent.

Reverse


Reverse legend : IN HIS. TRIBUS VERSANTUR ; À L'EXERGUE : COLLEGE. DE PHARMACIE. 1778.
Reverse description : Un palmier autour duquel s'enroule un serpent, formant un caducée.
Reverse translation : Ils sont versés dans les trois règnes.

Commentary


Feuardent pose problème pour ce jeton : il donne une année erronée, 1775 au lieu de 1778, et semble considérer que tous les jetons de ce type sont des refrappes. Notre exemplaire présente pourtant toutes les caractéristiques d'une frappe originale mais certainement pas effectuée en 1778. En effet, les frappes en bronze présentent les mêmes caractéristiques techniques et ont aussi la tranche cannelée, ce qui ne se conçoit pas pour le bronze à l'époque. Le motif du serpent et du coq remplace l'effigie royale probablement dès 1796, année plausible pour cette émission.

Historical background


CORPORATIONS

In Rome, groups of artisans already existed: forming a college placed under the protection of a divinity, with a common house and fund. In medieval Europe, probably from religious brotherhoods, economic groups were formed between merchants called hanse or ghilde.. With the development of trade, craftsmen organized themselves into trade bodies or communities which brought together all those who practiced the same profession: masters, journeymen or apprentices.. To enter the body, you had to "swear" the profession. Alongside, there were free professions that could be practiced by all.. Each corps was headed by a collegial management responsible for enforcing the regulations of the trade, protecting the trade from competition and directing the mutual benefit society.. At the end of the 17th century, the king began to sell the functions of jurors and corporate trustees as hereditary offices, which led to serious financial difficulties at a time when the corporations no longer met the new economic requirements of the development of industry and business concentration. It is also in England that the corporations disappeared spontaneously because of the industrial revolution.. The corporations will be abolished in France in 1791 by the Constituent Assembly.

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