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fjt_700360 - CORPORATIONS COLLEGE DE PHARMACIE 1778

CORPORATIONS COLLEGE DE PHARMACIE AU
80.00 €(Approx. 87.20$ | 66.40£)
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Type : COLLEGE DE PHARMACIE
Date: 1778
Metal : silver
Diameter : 32 mm
Orientation dies : 6 h.
Weight : 9,42 g.
Edge : cannelée
Catalogue references :

Obverse


Obverse legend : ET VIGIL ET PRUDENS.
Obverse description : Un serpent et un coq affrontés, symboles du savoir et de la vigilance.
Obverse translation : Aussi vigilant que prudent.

Reverse


Reverse legend : IN HIS. TRIBUS VERSANTUR ; À L'EXERGUE : COLLEGE. DE PHARMACIE. 1778.
Reverse description : Un palmier autour duquel s'enroule un serpent, formant un caducée.
Reverse translation : Ils sont versés dans les trois règnes.

Commentary


Feuardent pose problème pour ce jeton : il donne une année erronée, 1775 au lieu de 1778, et semble considérer que tous les jetons de ce type sont des refrappes. Notre exemplaire présente pourtant toutes les caractéristiques d'une frappe originale mais certainement pas effectuée en 1778. En effet, les frappes en bronze présentent les mêmes caractéristiques techniques et ont aussi la tranche cannelée, ce qui ne se conçoit pas pour le bronze à l'époque. Le motif du serpent et du coq remplace l'effigie royale probablement dès 1796, année plausible pour cette émission.

Historical background


CORPORATIONS

In Rome, artisan groups existed: forming a college under the protection of a deity, with a house and a common fund. In medieval Europe, probably from religious brotherhoods were formed between economic groupings called Hanse merchants or ghilde. With the development of trade, the craftsmen organized in body or professional communities that grouped all those employed in the same profession: masters, journeymen or apprentices. To enter the body, it was necessary to "swear" the trade. In addition, there existed free trades that could be enjoyed by all. Each body was headed by a collegial body responsible for enforcing the rules of trade, to protect the business from the competition and lead the fraternal benefit society. At the end of the seventeenth century, the king began to sell as hereditary offices as a juror and corporate trustees which provoked serious financial difficulties at a time when corporations are met in addition to more new economic development requirements Industry and business concentration. This is also in England that corporations disappeared spontaneously because of the industrial revolution. Corporations will be deleted in France in 1791 by the Constituent Assembly.

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