Obverse legend : LOUIS PHILIPPE I ROI DES FRANÇAIS.
Obverse description : Tête à droite de Louis-Philippe Ier coiffé d'une couronne de chêne dont l'une des extrémités du ruban qui la noue derrière la tête revient sur le cou ; signé DOMARD. F. au-dessous du cou contre le listel.
Reverse legend : 1/2 / FRANC.
Reverse description : en deux lignes, au-dessus de 1842, le tout dans une couronne ouverte nouée par un ruban à sa base, formée à gauche d'une branche de laurier, à droite d'une branche d'olivier ; au-dessous le différent du Graveur Général encadré de la lettre d'atelier B à droite et du différent de Directeur à gauche.
Born in Paris in 1773, Louis-Philippe was the eldest son of Louis Philippe Joseph, Duke of Orleans (Philippe Egalite), guillotined in 1793 for corruption after having voted the death of his cousin Louis XVI. He wears successively titles of Duke of Valois, Chartres and Orleans from 1793. Favorable to the Revolution, like his father, he must still take refuge in Switzerland and travels in Scandinavia, the United States and finally settled in England in 1801. Restore allows him to find the immense wealth of his family, but is still considered a potential rival by Louis XVIII, who coldly received. Refuge in England during the Hundred Days, he returned to France in 1817. Greedy, he gave his support to the opposition represented by the Liberal Party while relying on high propertied bourgeoisie. The days of 1830 gave him the opportunity to gain power after joining the tricolor and multiplied promises. It is July 31, 1830 Lieutenant General of the Kingdom and the French king on August 7. His reign in a liberal appearance, will become one of the bourgeoisie and the business community while oppositions (legitimists Bonapartist, republican and socialist) are held illegally. Its policy of peace and authority then earned him a certain prestige amongst the European courts. The banker Laffitte Prime Minister. Lafayette is one of the architects of the "bourgeois revolution". March 13, 1831, Casimir Perier replaces Laffitte. France intervenes in Belgium in August 1831 to counter the Dutch. The legitimists with conspiracy Street Prouvaires, trying to establish Henry V as king while his mother tries to raise the Vendée. She was arrested Dec. 3, 1832 in Nantes. Cholera outbreak kills more than ten thousand people in Paris, including Casimir Perier. The funeral of General Lamarque are during a Republican attempted uprising crushed in the blood (cf. Les Misérables). The French occupy Antwerp December 23, 1832. The attack of Fieschi of July 28, 1835 against Louis-Philippe kills eighteen people with Marshal Mortier. The first railway line Paris-Orléans iron and July column are respectively inaugurated October 24, 1837 and July 28, 1840. The year 1840 marked a turning point in the system, a large ministerial instability before the Guizot ministry ("Enrich yourselves!"). Prince Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, after a second coup attempt, was sentenced to life imprisonment and imprisoned in the fortress of Ham he will escape in 1846. Napoleon's ashes are returned to St. Helena and transferred to the Invalides. From 1841, Louis-Philippe of France committed towards the total conquest of Algeria, already begun under Charles X, while develops a major economic boom in Metropolis. A limit law in 1841 child labor in 12 hours. The first serious railway accident took place on the Paris-Versailles line and 45 people May 8, 1842. On July 13, the Duke of Orleans, eldest son of the king, dies accidentally. On 16 May 1843, the Duke of Aumale takes the Abd-el-Kader smala who managed to escape. Bugeaud, Governor of Algeria, is made Marshal. 1843 is also the beginning of the Entente Cordiale and the visit of Queen Victoria in France. The French defeated the Moroccans Isly. Abd-el-Kader went 23 December 1847. Refusal to reform led to the fall of the regime during the Campaign Banquets and Louis-Philippe, dethroned February 24, 1848, took refuge in England after abdicating in favor of his grandson, son.