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E-auction 34-12174 - MASSALIA - MARSEILLES Bronze au taureau (hémiobole ?)

MASSALIA - MARSEILLES Bronze au taureau (hémiobole ?)
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Estimate : 65 €
Price : 32 €
Maximum bid : 32 €
End of the sale : 09 December 2013 15:14:00
bidders : 4 bidders
Type : Bronze au taureau (hémiobole ?) 
Date : c. 121-49 AC. 
Metal : bronze 
Diameter : 13  mm
Orientation dies : 7  h.
Weight : 1,17  g.
Rarity : R1 
Coments on the condition : Beau petit bronze avec un droit bien net, mais un revers plus confus, avec une très agréable patine verte (foncé au droit et hétérogène au revers) 
Catalogue references :  - 
Obverse
Reverse
Commentary
Historical background
Obverse description : Tête laurée d'Apollon à droite, les cheveux longs, un monogramme derrière la nuque .
Obverse legend : K .
Reverse description : Taureau cornupète chargeant à droite .
Reverse legend : MASSA// (...) APT / XTQ ? .
Au revers si la légende MASSA est assez nette, l’exergue est plus difficile à lire... Avec un K sous le menton, il peut y avoir APT ou XTQ (MONETA 65/3 et 4)
Louis Chabot, loc. cit. p. 197 signale que Pierre Carlo Vian avait déjà noté la rareté de ces bronzes si particuliers dont une forte concentration a été relevée dans la région de Cavaillon. Claude Brenot Lyon, op. cit., p. 38 donne ces bronzes à Marseille pour la 23e série, la dernière avant la reddition de la cité à César en 49 avant J.-C. G. Depeyrot suit cette attribution.

MASSALIA - MARSEILLE

(Ve - first century BC)

Marseille, the "Massalia" Greeks, founded by the Phoenicians in 600 J. C-. Is born from the desire to promote Greek trading posts in order to compete with the Carthaginians and Etruscans for dominance of the western Mediterranean. Marseille is absolutely not a Celtic or Gallic creation and belongs to the Greek world. Between the fifth and the first century BC, Marseille and its hinterland experiencing unprecedented development. The rise of Rome from the first Punic War (268-241 before J. C-. ) And the strategic choice of Marseille, who plays Rome against Carthage, will return in the second half of the third century BC, Massalia a leading role in international trade in the western Mediterranean. The second century BC marked the decline of Marseille. Privileged ally of the Romans, Marseille, thanks to them, succeeded in imposing its authority in Marseille hinterland. The Romans, stopping the Cimbri and Teutons, saved southern Gaul invasions. From 118 before J. C-. The situation changes and becomes a Roman province Provincia. Marseille merchants compete with Roman traders in Spain, Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily. Nevertheless, they remain allies of the Romans until the first century BC. This is the beginning of the civil war between Caesar Pompey before 49 J. C-. which will be fatal to the city. Marseille was not able to choose between the two protagonists. Caesar besieged and took the city may suffer as its means of communication between Gaul and Italy can be cut. Fleet of Marseille was too important for it to fall into the hands of his mortal enemy, Pompey. Conquered the city was still not sacked and remained an important port at the beginning of Roman rule. Greek remained, it was never really assimilated to Roman Gaul and kept a sort of independent status, mixed cosmopolitanism where all religions crossed all peoples for the benefit of the Marseilles Trade.